To installation of modular designs of inhabited and public buildings apply load-lifting cranes: strelovye self-propelled caterpillar, pneumowheel and automobile; mobile, added and self-elevating tower, and also kozlovye and portal.
Caterpillar cranes (fig. 115, have the running caterpillar cart 1. on the cart the rotary platform 2 is established. On this platform mechanisms of the working equipment 3, a power-plant, executive mechanisms, a management cabin 4 and the assembly arrow 5 equipped polispastami and a cargo hook are fixed. These cranes about a diesel engine-electric work as a drive without portable support. At installation of an underground part of their building equip with short arrows, and at erection of elevated designs - the extended arrows in length to 40м and in single file or bashenno-strelovym the equipment (fig. 115, . At installation of civil buildings apply cranes load-carrying capacity 6.3... 25 and 30... 63т.
Pneumowheel cranes (fig. 115, and cranes on spetsshassi automobile type have two - trehosnye and with a great number of axes (special self-propelled chassis) on which the rotary platform with strelovym erection facilities is established. They can work without portable support (at small load-carrying capacity), in need of them establish on the portable. Support - autrigery. These cranes move with a speed to 12... 14km/ch (cranes pneumowheel) and to 50... 60m/ch (cranes on spetsshassi automobile type); their load-carrying capacity 16... 100т. Most widely in building apply pneumowheel cranes and cranes on spetsshassi automobile type load-carrying capacity 25... 63т with strelovym the equipment and in height of lifting of a cargo hook to 30м. Mobility of these cranes allows to use them practically everywhere where there are prodrivings.
Automobile cranes (fig. 115, have load-carrying capacity 5... 16т at rather small start of an arrow (2,5... 4м). Them use mainly on cargo handling works, integration of designs and installation of easy elements, for example, at erection of industrial agricultural buildings. Cranes are mounted on the chassis of lorries, it provides with it good passableness and speed of movement to 50... 70km/ch. In an operating time cranes establish on portable support that raises their stability. Height of lifting of a hook of cranes 6... 25м.
a Fig. 115. Self-propelled assembly cranes :
And, - caterpillar, in - pneumowheel, g - automobile;
1 - the cart, 2 - a platform, 3 - the working equipment, 4 - a management cabin, 5 - an arrow, 6 - a tower
Tower mobile cranes (rice 116, are freely standing rotary cranes with an arrow fixed in the top part of a vertical tower; are applied at erection of an elevated part of a building. Cranes move on a rail way.
The Tower crane consists of a tower 3, arrows 5, the running carts established on a railway line 1. Cabins 4, in which are placed management personnels by the crane; mechanisms of lifting of loads, turn of an arrow, movement of the crane, change of a start of a hook or movement of the cargo cart; cargo and strelovogo polispastov; terminators of load-carrying capacity, height of lifting of a hook, movement of the crane and arrow turn. Cranes have an electric drive with a food from an external network. The machinist operates all mechanisms of the crane from a cabin; combination to three working-class movements is possible.
Cranes load-carrying capacity 3... 15т are applied in civil many-storeyed building. Their basic advantages that they have the big height of lifting and a point of fastening of an arrow above assembly level. Machinists have the good review in time works and it is convenient to submit cranes designs to any place of an erected construction.
Strelovye rail cranes on running carts of tower cranes (fig. 116, are intended for erection of an underground part of buildings and constructions; can work with the various hinged equipment (trambovki, grejfery, vibropogruzhateli), and also to move with cargo on a hook. Load-carrying capacity of cranes 5... 15т at a start of an arrow 37... 13м.
a Fig. 116. Rail cranes :
And - tower, - shooting;
1 - a railway line, 2 - a frame, 3 - a tower, 4 - a cabin, 5 - an arrow