Breakdown of axes of any object, i.e. Fastening on district of its position, begin with carrying out in nature of two extreme points defining position of its longest longitudinal axis. Points take out from the nearest points of a geodetic basis in the way of rectangular or polar co-ordinates, angular or linear notches.
The Way of rectangular co-ordinates (fig. 112, apply if on a platform there is a building geodetic grid. The tops of a grid forming figures in the form of squares or rectangles, number on the marking drawing; length of the parties of a grid 50... 40м. Axes of a broken building ABVG or constructions should be parallel to the parties of a building grid. Distances are specified on the drawing.
Breakdown carry out in such sequence. On an alignment between signs 12 and 13 a building grid postpone distance and fix on district a point R From a line alignment 12... 13 ducks R .strojat a right angle. On a perpendicular postpone distance, and fix a point And . Similar constructions carry out from a sign 14 a building grid, and Would fix a point . On known distances between axes receive other points (In . and G . ). in the Same way break buildings and constructions from existing structures or "ъЁрёэ№§" lines.
After carrying over of the basic axes (fig. 112, and characteristic points of a building on district arrange obnosku which serves for fastening of axes of the bases, walls, columns and other elements of a building.
a Fig. 112. Breakdown and fastening of axes of a building :
And - the scheme of breakdown from a geodetic grid, - axes of a building for breakdown on district, in - transferring of axes on obnosku;
1 - the basic axes, 2 - contours of external walls of a building, 3 - control axial signs, 4 - obnoska, 5 - a theodolite, 6 - vizirnyj a theodolite beam; 1/А; 1/В; 5/А; 5/В - points of intersection of the basic axes
For the device old clothes to in parallel external contour of a building on distance 2... 3 m from its parties proveshivajut lines. In an alignment of these lines establish on distance Z. 3,5м from each other wooden or inventory metal racks. External sides of racks should be in one vertical plane. To racks from an outer side attach boards in the thickness 40... 50мм which top should be in one horizontal plane. Instead of old clothes wooden, apply inventory metal obnosku from pipes which fasten muftami and mobile fixing devices.
On obnoske fix the basic axes of a building. For this purpose establish a theodolite over any point located in an alignment of an axis, and on vising lines put on obnoske directions of axes, marking their numbers a paint. Having fixed the basic axes, put intermediate axial lines (the bases, walls and columns), measured by a roulette on obnoske from the basic axes.
On a case of damage the most important axes fix old clothes on district. For this purpose in their alignment on distance 5... 10м from the future building establish control time signs with axial risks on which supervise breakdown of axes in the course of manufacture of works. Axes can be fixed and on the constructions located near to the under construction building.