Butovaja a laying is a laying from natural stones of the wrong form, having two about parallel surfaces (bed). For a laying apply limestone, sandstone, a shell rock, a tufa, a granite, and also bulyzhnyj a stone (to erection of the bases of buildings in height to two floors).
In building use usually stones in weight to 30кг, the big stones preliminary split into smaller stones. This process is called plintovkoj. Simultaneously with plitkovoj chop off acute angles of stones, adjusting their form to a parallelepiped.
a Fig. 77. Tools for butovoj layings:
And - a sledge hammer, - a hammer-cam, in - trambovka metal, g - trambovka wooden
For plintovki stones apply a rectangular sledge hammer in weight 4,8кг (fig. 77, and to processing - a hammer-cam in weight 2,3кг (fig. 77,) which chop off acute angles. The same hammer rebuff and rasshchebenivajut butovyj a stone at a laying. Trambovkami (fig. 77, in,) rebuff stones, condense butovuju a laying. Except the tools shown on fig. 77, at butovoj to a laying use the same tools and stock, as at a bricklaying.
a Fig. 78. Bandaging of a laying from butovogo a stone:
And - walls, - in crossings of walls, in - in corners, 1 - spoons, 2 - tychki
At butovoj to a laying it is difficult to reach such careful bandaging, as at a laying from a brick as stones have the wrong form. Therefore in verstovyh numbers and in zabudke stones select and have so for bandaging maintenance, that at erection of walls (fig. 78, it was possible to stack stones alternately: that the long party - spoons 1, short - tychkom 2. Hence, in everyone to a laying number consistently alternate tychkovye and lozhkovye stones, both in versts, and in zabutke. In adjacent numbers over tychkovymi stack lozhkovye stones, and over lozhkovymi - tychkovye. In such a way provide bandaging of seams butovoj layings which is similar to chain bandaging at a laying from a brick. As display stones in numbers at crossing (fig. 78, and in corners of walls (fig. 78,).
Stones select and adjust so that whenever possible to create identical height of some a laying within 20... 25см and horizontal position of seams. Thus it is possible to stack on two-three thin stones in the same row layings, and some large stones can enter into two adjacent numbers.
Butovuju carry out a laying "яюф ыюяр=ъѕ" "яюф чрышт" and also with application vibrouplotnenija.
a Fig. 79. A butovaja laying:
And - "яюф ыюяр=ъѕ" - "яюф ёъюсѕ" ("яюф ыюяр=ъѕ") with prikolkoj obverse verst;
1 - verstovye numbers, 2 - majachnye stones, 3 - prichalka, 4 - stones with the processed face sheet, 5 - obverse versts, 6 - a cellar floor
The Laying "яюф ыюяр=ъѕ" (fig. 79, carry out horizontal numbers in the thickness on 25см with selection and prikolkoj stones, rasshchebenkoj emptiness and bandaging of seams.
The First, bottom, stack a number on the prepared basis dry from large postelistyh the stones turned by bed downwards. That stones densely adjoined to the basis, them rebuff trambovkoj. Then fill emptiness between them small stones or rubble and fill in with a plastic solution (at a deposit of a reference cone 13... 15см) before filling of all emptiness between stones. Rasshchebenku condense trambovaniem. Further a laying conduct on a solution porjadno, observing bandaging. Mobility of a solution for a laying should correspond to immersing of a reference cone on 4... 6см.
The Laying carry out in such sequence. Each subsequent number begin with packing of versts. Before erection of internal and external verst on corners, crossings and through everyone 4... 5м on direct sites of a wall stack on a solution majachnye stones 2. On majachnym to stones from both parties of a laying pull prichalki 3, on which in the course of a laying check horizontal position of a number and straightforwardness of an obverse surface of the bases and walls. Stones for verstovyh the numbers, picked up for height at first spread dry to find the steadiest position in a laying. Then a stone raise, lay a layer of a solution in the thickness 3... 4см also establish a stone definitively, rebuffing its hammer. Having laid versts, start filling zabutki. A solution under zabutku, as well as for verstovyh numbers, submit a shovel and spread with surplus that at packing of stones it was squeezed out in vertical seams between stones. Zabutku it is possible to do of stones of any sizes and the form with dense landing (without kachanija) on bed and with bandaging observance, alternating tychki to spoons. For more dense landing stones rebuff trambovkoj or a hammer. It is necessary to watch that stones did not adjoin with each other without a solution as it reduces durability of a laying. After packing zabutki carry out rasshchebenku layings, rebuffing in a solution light blows of a hammer rubble and small stones. A surface of the laid number of a laying level, adding a solution only in deepenings between stones. Following numbers of a laying carry out in the same sequence.
The Laying "яюф ёъюсѕ" - a laying version "яюф ыюяр=ъѕ" and it carry out from the stones of identical height selected by means of a template (skoby). Such laying apply to erection of piers and columns.
The Laying with prikolkoj an obverse surface (fig. 79, - also a laying version "яюф ыюяр=ъѕ" or "яюф ёъюсѕ". At performance of this laying of roughness on an obverse surface of the stones stacked in external or internal verst, preliminary chop off. With prikolkoj an obverse surface usually spread columns and walls of cellars.
The Laying in to a timbering in the way "яюф ыюяр=ъѕ" carry out, when it is necessary to receive a smooth surface of both parties of a wall at few-postelistom and rough butovom a stone. In this case it is possible not to select postelistye stones for verstovyh numbers and corners.
a Fig. 80. A laying "яюф чрышт":
1 - packing of a stone and rasshchebenka emptiness, 2 - pouring by a liquid solution, 3 - packing of a following number, 4 - check of horizontal position of a laying, 5 - level, 6 - rejka-corrected, 7 - a timbering
The Laying "яюф чрышт" carry out from fragmentary buta or bulyzhnogo a stone, without selecting stones and without spreading verstovyh numbers. A laying erect in a timbering which establish in the trenches opened in the earth (fig. 80).
If a ground dense at depth of tranches to 1,25м it is possible to conduct a laying and without a timbering vraspor with trench walls. The first layer butovogo a stone in height 25... 20см stack on the dry basis without a solution vraspor with walls and condense trambovaniem. Then fill all intervals between stones a small stone and rubble 1. the laid layer fill in 2 with a liquid solution so that all emptiness have been filled. The subsequent laying conduct in the same way horizontal numbers in height 25... 20см, filling in with a solution each number of a laying. This way of a laying is supposed only for erection of the bases of buildings in height no more 10м and only on neprosadochnyh gruntah.
a Fig. 81. A laying with vibrouplotneniem:
1 - stone packing "эрёѕ§ю" with rasshchebenkoj emptiness, 2 - consolidation of a solution by the vibrator, 3 - stone packing under a shovel, 4 - a timbering, 5 - a solution layer, 6 - ploshchadochnyj the vibrator
The Laying with application vibrouplotnenija (fig. 81) has durability on 25... 40% are more than durability of the laying executed in the way "яюф ыюяр=ъѕ". A laying carry out in a timbering or vraspor with walls of tranches in dense gruntah. The First row stack dry, emptiness between stones fill shchebenkoj, and then spread a solution a layer 4... 6см, establish ploshchadochnyj the vibrator and condense a laying until the solution will not cease to get into a laying. Then stack on a solution the following number of a stone in the way "яюф ыюяр=ъѕ" cover with its solution and again vibrate. To create a decorative surface butovyh walls, apply a cyclopean laying: for an obverse surface of a laying select the pricked stones, having them in verstovyh numbers so that from seams between them drawing has turned out. These seams do also convex (width 2... 4см) also embroider. Sometimes for a laying of corners thus use roughly otesannye rectangular stones, tying up them with a wall laying. Apply also cyclopean facing butovoj layings plitnymi stones after its erection.