The Basic bearing elements (the bases, walls etc.) in aggregate form bearing skeleton of a building which perceives all loadings influencing a building, and transfers them to the basis, and also provides spatial stability (rigidity) and stability of a building. The constructional scheme of a bearing skeleton of a building is subdivided: beskarkasnye, frame and with an incomplete skeleton.
Inhabited and public buildings, as a rule, build of a brick, ceramic or concrete stones and small blocks, and also from krupnorazmernyh details and elements: krupnoblochnye, large-panel and volume-block.
Beskarkasnye of a building from a brick and small stones and blocks erect usually with longitudinal bearing (fig. 2, external and internal walls. Cross-section walls in such buildings arrange mainly in staircases, in places where take place smoke and ventilating channels, and also in intervals between them for giving bolshej stability to longitudinal walls and buildings as a whole. In buildings with cross-section bearing walls (fig. 2,) longitudinal external walls - self-bearing, and overlappings lean against cross-section walls. Are erected also beskarkasnye buildings at which bearing are both cross-section, and longitudinal walls. In such buildings of the panel of overlappings in the size on a room lean all four parties against cross-section and longitudinal walls.
a Fig. 2. Constructive schemes beskarkasnyh buildings with bearing walls :
And - longitudinal, - cross-section
Beskarkasnye krupnoblochnye buildings with walls from concrete and other blocks have constructive schemes with cross-section and longitudinal bearing walls (fig. 3). Public many-storeyed buildings erect with longitudinal bearing walls is more often. Thus depending on width of a building there can be not one, and two internal longitudinal walls.
a Fig. 3. The constructive scheme krupnoblochnogo buildings with cross-section and longitudinal bearing walls :
1 - the angular block, 2 - prostenochnyj, 3 - podokonnyj, 4 - peremychechnyj, 5 - the block of an internal wall, 6 - overlapping panels
Beskarkasnye large-panel buildings happen: with three longitudinal bearing walls: with the cross-section bearing walls-partitions established with small or big step (distance) from each other.
In houses with cross-section bearing walls-partitions (fig. 4) all basic elements bearing: cross-section walls-partitions, internal longitudinal and external walls. Panels of overlappings have support on four parties. Thus external stenovye panels 1, which differ from external panels in houses with longitudinal bearing walls a little, consider also bearing. Peregorodochnye panels 4 and panels of an internal longitudinal wall in such houses produce from heavy (constructive) concrete. Panels of external walls produce from easy concrete. They happen three-layer: from heavy concrete with teploizolirujushchimi loose leaves.
a Fig. 4. The constructive scheme of the large-panel house with bearing walls-partitions :
1 - external stenovye panels, 2 - sanitary-engineering cabins, 3 - bearing partitions, 4 - internal bearing cross-section walls (partition), 5 - overlapping panels, 6 - socle panels, 7 - blocks of the bases