The Part of walls blocking window or a doorway, is called as a crosspiece. If the gravity of overlappings is transferred to a wall directly over an aperture, apply bearing modular ferro-concrete crosspieces. If such loading is not present, to overlapping of apertures in width less 2м apply ferro-concrete not bearing or ordinary brick crosspieces in the form of a laying on solutions of the raised durability with armaturnymi cores which support bricks of the bottom number. Instead of private soldiers sometimes do klinchatye crosspieces which serve at the same time as architectural details of a facade. At flights to 3,5... 4м erect arch crosspieces. the Laying of this kind use and for the device of vaulted overlappings (arches).
At a laying of crosspieces all longitudinal and cross-section seams entirely fill with a solution as such laying works not only on compression, but also on a bend. At weak filling with a solution of vertical seams under the influence of loadings at first there is a shift of separate bricks, and then laying destruction.
Ordinary crosspieces (fig. 62, spread from a perfect whole brick with observance of horizontal position of numbers and transportation rules. Height of an ordinary crosspiece 4... 6 numbers of a laying, length on 50см are more than width of an aperture. To a laying apply a mark solution not more low 25.
Crosspieces spread with a timbering (fig. 62, from boards in 2 thickness 40... 50мм. On a timbering spread a layer of a solution in the thickness 20... 30мм, in which then vtaplivajut armaturnye cores under the bottom number of a brick of an ordinary crosspiece (on one steel core, diameter not less 6мм on everyone 1 / 2 a brick of a thickness of a wall, but not less than three cores on a crosspiece if under the project other reinforcing is not required). The ends of cores 3 pass for aperture sides on 250мм (they should come to an end with a hook), i.e. Them zaankerivajut in a laying; cores of a periodic profile zaankerivat it is not required.
a Fig. 62. A laying of an ordinary crosspiece :
And - a general view, - the timbering scheme on tubular kruzhalah;
1 - supporting racks; 2 - a board timbering, 3 - armaturnye cores, 4 - a solution layer, 5 - a crosspiece laying, 6 - tubular kruzhala
The Ends of boards of a timbering opirajut on the bricks which have been let out from a laying; after removal of a timbering them cut down. Sometimes the timbering ends insert into furrows on slopes of apertures (after removal of a timbering of a furrow put a brick). If the width of an aperture is more 1,5м, - under a timbering substitute racks 1.
Them do of two scraps of pipes in diameter 48мм, inserted into the third piece of a pipe in diameter 60мм. At a pipe laying kruzhala move apart so that the ends of a pipe of smaller diameter came in the furrows left in a laying. On each aperture put two kruzhala; they can be applied and in that case when window door blocks are inserted into apertures. At other types kruzhal it is possible to put blocks only after removal of a timbering of a crosspiece.
Klinchatye and luchkovye crosspieces (fig. 63, and, ) spread from a corpulent ceramic or silicate brick with klinoobraznymi the seams, which thickness in the bottom of a crosspiece not less 5мм, above no more 25мм.
Prior to the beginning of a crosspiece laying put up a wall to crosspiece level, spreading simultaneously its basic part 2 (heel) from podtesannogo a brick (a template define a direction of a basic plane 7, i.e. A corner of its deviation from a vertical). A laying conduct cross-section numbers 3 on a timbering 4, supported kruzhalami. On a timbering mark laying numbers so that their number was odd, considering thus a thickness of a seam. The central brick 8 in odd central to a number name zamkovym.
a Fig. 63. A laying of crosspieces :
And - klinchatoj, - arch, in - luchkovoj;
1 - a direction of a basic plane, 2 - a heel, 3 - the numbers of a laying forming a crosspiece, 4 - board a timbering, 5 - a cord, 6 - a template-square, 7 - wedges, 8 - the central brick
Klinchatye and luchkovye spread crosspieces in parallel from two parties from a heel to the lock so that in the lock they were got jammed by the central odd brick. A direction of seams supervise a cord strengthened in a point of intersection of interfaced lines of basic parts (heels).
At flights more 2м the laying klinchatyh crosspieces is not supposed.
Arch crosspieces (fig. 63, and the arches spread arches in the same sequence, as well as klinchatye. Seams between numbers should be perpendicular a curve forming the bottom surface of an arch, and an external surface of a laying. Thus seams turn out widened above and narrowed below.
The Arrangement of numbers of a laying and beds dividing them are established according to the first rule razrezki layings as in arches and the arches the effort from loading operates on a tangent to a curve of an arch and bed of numbers appear perpendicular to a direction of pressure.
Arch crosspieces spread on a timbering from heels to the lock simultaneously from both parties.
Laying Seams entirely fill with a solution. At the big thickness of the arch from a brick or stones laying seams in addition fill in with a liquid solution. The top surface of the arches rub clean. The direction of radial seams and correctness of packing of each number check on a cord 5 fixed in the centre of an arch. A cord and a template-square 6, which one party has an outline corresponding to curvature of an arch, define and check position of each number of a laying.
The Timbering for a laying of the arches and arches should fall in regular intervals at raspalublivanii. For this purpose under kruzhalami put wedges 7 at which gradual easing the timbering falls.
Terms of keeping arch and klinchatyh crosspieces in a timbering depending on temperature of external air (summer) and marks kladochnogo a solution 7 … 20, and private soldiers - 5... 24сут.