At all variety of buildings all of them consist of the limited number of the interconnected architecturally-constructional elements (parts).
On a functional purpose they are subdivided on bearing, protecting and combining by both these functions. Bearing designs perceive the loadings arising in a building and operating on it from the outside (from designs of the building, the equipment, snow, a wind, people); protecting - thermal protections are intended for isolation of internal volumes in buildings and constructions from an environment or among themselves taking into account standard requirements on durability, to a waterproofing, isolation from a moisture, to air permeability, sound insulation, transparency. Designs which can perceive loadings transferred to them, are combining. Namely: bearing and protecting functions. Such designs should meet corresponding requirements on bearing ability, and also heat conductivity, air permeability, sound insulation.
The Basic constructive elements of buildings (fig. 1) is: the bases, walls, overlappings. And also: partitions, a roof, a ladder.
a Fig. 1. The constructive scheme of a many-storeyed building :
1 - the base, 2 - a cellar floor, 3 - overlapping over a cellar, 4 - a waterproofing, 5 - external walls, 6 - interfloor overlappings, 7 - internal walls, 8 - partitions, 9 - garret overlapping, 10 - an attic, 11 - a roof, 12 - a ladder, 13 - a parapet, 14 - windows, 15 - otmostka
the Base represents a basic part through which from a building loading is transferred to a ground - the basis.
The Basis name natural when the ground under a base sole is in its condition natural zaleganija; if a ground it is preliminary artificial strengthen, such basis name artificial. The bases are subject to influence of ground waters, quite often aggressive, and variable temperature, therefore to erection of the bases apply the materials possessing high durability, water- and frost resistance: ferro-concrete, concrete, butovyj a stone. In mass building the bases under walls of buildings construct, as a rule, national teams: from ferro-concrete plates and blocks. Usually the bases having a flat sole, subdivide on tape which put under walls, or stolbchatye - in the form of rectangular, trapezoid and other types of separate support under separate columns or columns. The bases happen also pile when the building leans against the wooden in ground wooden, concrete or ferro-concrete piles.
Walls to destination and to an arrangement in a building subdivide on external and internal. External walls 5 (fig. 1) protect premises from an environment and protect them from atmospheric influences, internal 7 - separate one premises from others. Both external, and internal walls perceive wind loadings on a building, provide zvuko - and a thermal protection of premises, their protection against external climatic influences.
Walls happen bearing, self-bearing and not bearing. Bearing walls both perceive, and transfer to the bases of loading not only from a body weight, but also from other designs (overlapping, a roof, a ladder), and also wind loadings.
Self-bearing walls transfer to the loading bases only a body weight. Overlappings do not lean against such walls or Other designs of a building.
Walls which only protect premises of buildings from external space and transfer a body weight within each floor to other bearing designs, are called as not bearing. The same walls hung on vertical designs of a skeleton of a building, it is accepted to name hinged.
The Top part of an external wall supporting a plane of a wall, is called as eaves. Eaves carrying out, i.e. Distance from a wall to eaves edge, appoint under the project. Thus consider necessity of protection of walls from the water which are flowing down from a roof, and architectural features of a building. Buildings with walls without eaves have a parapet 13, which is a protecting part of a roof.
Interfloor overlappings 6совмещают the functions protecting and bearing, also divide a building on height into floors. Overlappings 9 over the top floor - garret. Overlappings in stone buildings carry out from modular ferro-concrete panels, in low houses - sometimes from wooden beams to which attach details of a ceiling from plywood, drevesnostruzhechnyh plates or gipsokartonnyh sheets.
Partitions - protecting elements with which divide internal space of a building within one floor into separate premises, erect from plaster, fibrolitovyh plates, ceramic and other hollow stones, a brick and other materials. Partitions lean against overlappings and to them transfer a body weight.
the Roof combines the functions protecting and bearing, and serves for protection of a building against an atmospheric precipitation and their removal its limits; consists of the ferro-concrete panels leaning against external and internal walls and laid with a bias for the organisation of a drainage system. Between panels of a roof and garret overlappings the space which name an attic 10 is formed. in low buildings a roof do of wooden rafters on which of boards arrange obreshetku to which attach a roofing covering from asbestotsementnyh and other sheets or roofing iron.
Ladders 12 serve for the message between floors, settle down in premises with bearing walls (staircases). The ladder part between platforms is called as a march, on staircases, as a rule, place also lifts.