Frame buildings construct, as a rule, public and administrative. Last years build as well frame many-storeyed apartment houses. In buildings with a full skeleton (fig. 5 bearing a skeleton consists of columns and the crossbars which are carried out in the form of beams for opiranija of designs of overlappings. The columns fastened among themselves and crossbars form the bearing frames perceiving vertical and horizontal loadings of a building. In buildings of this type, external walls happen hinged or self-bearing. Hinged nenesushchie in the form of hinged panels attach to external columns of a skeleton. Self-bearing external walls lean directly against the bases or on the base beams established on stolbchatym to the bases. Self-bearing walls are attached to skeleton columns.
In buildings with an incomplete skeleton external walls do bearing, and columns have only on internal axes of a building. Thus crossbars stack between columns, and sometimes and between columns and external walls. Such constructive type of a building (fig. 5, in modern building has the limited application.
a Fig. 5. Constructive schemes of buildings :
And - with a full skeleton, - with an incomplete skeleton;
1 - columns, 2 - crossbars, 3 - panels of overlappings, 4 - bearing external walls
The Building of any type should be not only strong enough, not collapse from action of loadings, but also not overturn at action of horizontal loadings, and have spatial rigidity, i.e. Ability as as a whole so in its separate parts to keep the initial form at action of the applied forces.
Spatial rigidity beskarkasnyh buildings is provided with bearing external and internal cross-section walls, including the walls of staircases connected with external longitudinal walls, and also the interfloor overlappings connecting walls and dividing them on height of a building on separate circles.
Spatial rigidity of frame buildings (fig. 6) is provided:
- teamwork of the columns connected among themselves by crossbars and overlappings and forming geometrically unchangeable system;
- installation between columns of walls of rigidity of 1 or steel vertical communications;
- interface of walls of staircases to skeleton designs;
- packing in interfloor overlappings (between columns) panels-rasporok 3.
a Fig. 6. The elements providing spatial rigidity of frame buildings :
1 - rigidity walls, 2 - crossbars, 3 - panels-rasporki, 4 - columns
Volume-block buildings erect from krupnorazmernyh elements - volume blocks which represent a ready part of a building, for example a room (fig. 7), the sizes of volume blocks depend on the scheme razrezki buildings on blocks-rooms. Two constructive schemes have such houses: block and blochno-panel. Block buildings erect only from the volume blocks established closely to each other. In blochno-panel buildings - volume blocks establish on distance one from another so that between them the room which block panels is formed. Besides, apply blochno-panel designs which consist of the volume blocks which do not have a front part (external walls). Stenovye panels hinged, mount them after installation of volume blocks of the house.