Building Industrialization in which basis factory manufacturing is necessary, typification and standardization of designs and details, has changed character of works on buildings. In stone buildings a considerable quantity of designs carry out from modular ferro-concrete details. For their delivery to buildings, lifting and installation in design position use various vehicles, assembly mechanisms and adaptations. To provide reliability of the erected designs and safety of installation, it is necessary to supervise carefully quality of modular elements, to observe requirements of technology and the project of manufacture of works.
The Project of installation works is a part of the general project of manufacture of works. In it instructions on placing on priobektnom a warehouse, ways and sequence of installation of designs contain, the specification of details and elements, schedules of their delivery on a platform and installation schedules is resulted.
Prior to the beginning of installation of modular designs all previous works provided by working drawings and the project of manufacture of installation works should be performed. For example, before installation of the bases of a building excavations on preparation of tranches and foundation ditches should be finished, breakdown and fastening of axes of the bases is made, time prodrivings are made, elements and details of designs are prepared according to the scheme of an apportion and installation, assembly mechanisms, adaptations tools are prepared.
At installation of building designs carry out a number of processes. Major of them: check of a condition of designs, the device podmostej for work of assemblers at height, preparation of elements for lifting, stropovka designs, lifting, installation, adjustment and fastening of designs in design position.
First of all, provide correct placing and warehousing of elements of designs, and also assembly adaptations, stock and equipment, establish in necessary places indexes and protections of dangerous zones, inscriptions and the signals warning about danger or forbidding movement. Modular elements store in the places provided by the strojgen-project plan of manufacture of works. It is not authorised to lean large-sized designs to stacks of products, or walls of buildings.
Assembly mechanisms are supposed to operation only after survey and acceptance.
gruzozahvatnye assembly adaptations prior to the beginning of application test All and supply with labels with instructions of supposed load-carrying capacity. Results of tests register in special magazines. Before the beginning of works regularly examine applied assembly adaptations, checking their serviceability.
In the course of installation of modular designs it is necessary to provide full safety of all elevating mechanisms working in an operative range and installations of designs. For this purpose works conduct in such ways and in such technological sequence which is provided by the project of installation works and technological cards.
The Majority of building cars have an electric drive of executive mechanisms. For protection of attendants against defeat by an electric current building cars, the mechanisms, the electrified tool, and also railway lines of tower self-propelled cranes earth. To work on cranes it is authorised to the persons passed special instructing and having the certificate of inspection on the right of management by the crane of given type.
At installation of a mounted detail (element) into place the crane should carry out only one movement (operation). During breaks in work it is forbidden to leave cargo hanging on a crane hook.
All moving parts of building cars (belt, shesterennye transfers, mufty with acting bolts, brakes and friction clutches, shaft and drums), located near to passes and workplaces, close demountable protections.
To cargo handling and to installation works workers not more youngly 18 years, passed medical inspection, introduction instructing and instructing directly on a workplace under safety precautions are supposed. Besides instructing workers on installation works should pass in the first month of work on building training by safe way of installation under the special program developed taking into account features of building.
At work at height assemblers should use helmets, the safety belts, not sliding footwear. Assemblers fasten carbines of safety belts to steady elements or specially tense steel ropes. For resocks of the tool and hardware (nuts, washers) assemblers use special boxes.
Safety belts test every six months for durability stationary loading 3кН. On each belt put down its number and test date. It is forbidden to use the belts which have done not pass the next tests.
At erection of buildings it is forbidden to work and be worker on those zahvatkah over which installation of designs on overlying floors, and also in a zone of moving by cranes of elements and assembly conductors (irrespective of number of the mounted overlappings is conducted). Zones where works are conducted, protect and in them hang out precautionary inscriptions.
At installation of modular designs observe following rules:
- Before lifting of designs check reliability of fastening of assembly loops, mortgage details and quality of products as a whole;
- Products with defects to installation are not supposed;
- it is not supposed to lift the crane the details which clamped by other elements or have frozen to the earth;
- Designs move in a horizontal direction at height not less 1м over any subjects;
- It is forbidden to transfer designs the crane under a workplace of assemblers, and also over zahvatkoj where other civil work are conducted;
- Elements submit the crane to a place of installation from building lateral aspect;
- the Submitted element accept, when it is in 20... 30см from an installation site, thus assemblers should not be between an element and overlapping or wall edge;
- Elements establish without pushes, without supposing blows on other designs;
- In need of repeated installation of an element a solution clear a shovel with the long handle; it is not supposed to use for this purpose kelmu;
- the Established elements release from slings after their constant or time fastening; time fastenings remove from the established and verified elements only after constant fastening of these elements;
- Such operations as fastening of mounted elements, rasstropovka, the device of fastenings, zadelka joints, assemblers carry out from working platforms, katuchih step-ladders or assembly little tables;
- At unloading from vehicles elements lift on height 20... 30см for check of reliability of a rigging and durability of fastening of assembly loops then scaffold workers check stropovku and continue detail lifting. At an unloading of elements from vehicles the driver should leave a cabin, it is forbidden to move cargo over it;
- On an installation course the blank apertures of a building close inventory boards or in apertures arrange time protections;
- On workplaces of assemblers there should not be extraneous subjects;
- Podmosti equip with the adaptations providing safety of works;
- Assemblers are forbidden to go on crossbars and walls;
- On a building site should be shined in the evening and night of prodriving, passes, ladders, warehouses of products and workers.