Installation of the bases

STONE WORKS
KAM'JAN_ ROBOTI
KAMENNYJA PRATSY

Prior to the beginning of installation of the bases it is necessary to be convinced that building axes are broken and fixed on obnoske correctly.

Geodesists and other technical officers begin breakdown of axes of the bases (fig. 128) with transferring of axes 1, 2 on the basis prepared for the device of the bases. With the help old clothes 4, pull axial strings 5, and by means of plumbs 8, transfer points of their crossing 3, on a bottom of foundation ditches, tranches. From these points measure the design sizes of the bases and fix their metal probes 6 so that tense between them prichalka 7 was on 2... 3мм further a lateral side of the tape base. At installation of the separate bases under columns and columns on a bottom of a foundation ditch plumbs transfer not only points of intersection of axes, but also directions of axes on which at once mark sides or corners of the bases.

Transferring of axes of the bases on a foundation ditch bottom: 1 - a cross-section axis, 2 - a longitudinal axis, 3 - points of intersection of axes, 4 - obnoska, 5 - an axial string, 6 - probes, 7 - prichalki, 8 - a plumb

a Fig. 128. Transferring of axes of the bases on a foundation ditch bottom :
1 - a cross-section axis, 2 - a longitudinal axis, 3 - points of intersection of axes, 4 - obnoska, 5 - an axial string, 6 - probes, 7 - prichalki, 8 - a plumb

Base plates at sandy gruntah stack directly on the levelled basis, at others gruntah - on a sandy pillow in the thickness 100мм. Under a sole of the bases it is impossible to leave the bulk or loosened ground, it delete and instead of it fall asleep and stamp rubble or sand. Deepenings in the basis more 100мм fill with concrete or a stone laying.

For check of horizontal position of the basis (fig. 129) in the beginning and the end of the site which has been taken away under the base, establish control motionless vizirki 1 so that their top was above a basis mark for the length portable running testing vizirki 2. Level control vizirok is checked daily a level or with the help by old clothes. Between control vizirkami hammer into a ground in pegs 3. depth zabivki should be such that put on them running testing vizirka 2 was in one horizontal plane with motionless (control) vizirkami 1.

Schemes of check of horizontal position of the basis under the bases: 1 - motionless vizirki, 2 - running vizirka, 3 - pegs, 4 - the sandy basis

a Fig. 129. Schemes of check of horizontal position of the basis under the bases :
1 - motionless vizirki, 2 - running vizirka, 3 - pegs, 4 - the sandy basis

At work one assembler departs on some metres for one of control vizirok, looks through horizon and instructs other assembler in depth zabivki pegs. The top of the pegs established thus will correspond to a basis mark. Having put then on the hammered peg, a rule with level, assemblers check horizontal position of the basis and level it, adding or cutting off if necessary corresponding layer of sand. Thus a basis lay-out carry out so that the rule put in various directions, densely adjoined to the basis. Width and length of the sandy basis do on 200... 300мм there are more than sizes of the bases that blocks did not hang down from a sandy pillow.

Before stropovkoj blocks it is necessary to be convinced that the crane is on safe distance from edge of a foundation ditch and that its support (caterpillars, wheels, autrigery) are located outside of a collapse prism.

At installation (130) base plates lift fig. for loops chetyrehvetvevym a sling 3. turn of an arrow of the assembly crane a plate move to a packing place, direct at an installation site and on command zvenevogo assemblers lower on the basis. Insignificant deviations eliminate, moving a plate an assembly breakage at the tense slings. Thus the basis surface should not be broken. Slings remove only after the plate will occupy correct position, in plates stack under the scheme according to the project so that to provide in the specified places ruptures for the admission of pipes of water supply, the water drain and other inputs.

Installation of base plates: 1 - majachnye plates, 2 - prichalka, 3 - chetyrehvetvevoj a sling

a Fig. 130. Installation of base plates :
1 - majachnye plates, 2 - prichalka, 3 - chetyrehvetvevoj a sling

Installation begin with installation majachnyh plates 1 on corners and in places of crossing of walls. After packing majachnyh plates prichalku 2 (tense on the verge of a base tape) lift to level of the top external edge of plates and on prichalke stack all intermediate plates. Top majachnyh plates check a level, and the others - on prichalke, or vising on earlier established plates. If position in the plan or on height of the laid plate deviates from design and deviations exceed supposed sizes, a plate the crane take aside, anew level the basis and on it again lower a plate. Ruptures between plates if they are provided by the project, and lateral bosoms in the course of installation fill with sand and condense.

At installation of the separate bases under columns at first transfer on a bottom of a foundation ditch a plumb position of axes, precisely fixing their probes or the pegs hammered into a ground. On blocks mark risks (it is recommended an indelible paint) the middle of lateral sides - use them for the control of correctness of lowering of the block on the basis. On blocks stakannogo type (under ferro-concrete columns) define the middle of a glass and put axial risks on the top side.

At lowering and glass installation under a column (rice 131, and, on the basis assemblers supervise block position 3 on the hammered pegs 1 and to risks 2 on lateral sides of the block. Correctness of installation of the block on height check a level; at blocks stakannogo type - a mark of a bottom of a glass, at blocks under columns - a mark of the top side.

glass Installation under a column: and - lowering into place, - adjustment, 1 - pegs, 2 - risk, 3 - the block

a Fig. 131. Glass installation under a column :
And - lowering into place, - adjustment, 1 - pegs, 2 - risk, 3 - the block

Sometimes the bases under columns of buildings do compound. A glass establish on rastvornuju the bed laid on a base plate. For the bed device two stack on a plate surface rejki on lateral edges of the platform intended for installation of a glass. A solution between rejkami level, moving a rule on rejkam which thickness should provide a demanded thickness rastvornogo a seam.

At installation of the tape bases of a place of interfaces of longitudinal and cross-section walls close up a concrete mix.

Upon termination of installation of base plates spend planned and high-rise shooting by geodetic devices. Simultaneously thus put axial risks on the bases: separate - risks of longitudinal and cross-section axes, tape - risks in places of crossing of axes and on building corners. By results of shooting make the executive scheme on which specify actual position of blocks in the plan and on height.


all articles from section " Installation works at erection stone чфрэшщ"

the General data and requirements

Assembly mechanisms, adaptations and tools

Acceptance and warehousing of modular designs

Preparation of elements for lifting. Stropovka

Lifting and installation of designs

Installation of the bases and walls of cellars

Installation of modular ferro-concrete elements of brick buildings on a laying course

Installation of large-panel partitions

Installation of overlappings

Installation of sanitary-engineering cabins, a refuse chute, liftovyh mines

Requirements to quality of installation