the Stone laying is a design from stones, the bricks laid on a building solution in a certain order. The laying perceives loadings from a body weight and other constructive elements leaning against a laying, and the loadings enclosed to them, and also carries out heat, sound-proof and other functions.
at building of buildings and constructions apply following kinds of a laying: the brick; from ceramic stones and the artificial large-size blocks produced from concrete, a brick or ceramic stones; from natural stones of the correct form (pilenyh or tesanyh); butovuju from the natural crude stones having the wrong form; mixed (a laying butovaja, revetted with a brick; from the concrete stones revetted with a brick; From a brick revetted tesanym with a stone); the facilitated laying from a brick with teploizolirujushchimi layers from easy concrete, plates and other materials.
the Stone laying carry out on limy, mixed cement-limy and cement mortals, and also on cement-clay, in which clay, plastifitsirujushchaja the additive. A kind and solution mark specify in working drawings. At butobetonnoj to a laying crude natural stones of the wrong form stack not on a solution, and vtaplivajut in concrete.
the laying kind is appointed in the project taking into account service conditions, by solidities of an under construction building or a construction and economic feasibility of use of materials.
the laying from a ceramic brick plastic pressing thanks to good resistibility to influence of a moisture, high durability, frost resistance is applied at erection of walls and columns of buildings and constructions, retaining walls, chimneys, designs of various underground constructions.
the Laying from a ceramic hollow or poristo-hollow brick is recommended to be used for walls of buildings. Small heat conductivity of these layings allows to reduce a thickness of external walls on 20... 25 % and to lower weight on 20... 30 % in comparison with weight of the walls which have been laid out from a corpulent brick.
the laying from concrete stones on heavy concrete intends for erection of the bases, walls of cellars and other underground designs.
the laying from hollow and legkobetonnyh stones is applied to erection of external and internal walls of buildings. Legkobetonnye and hollow stones have good teploizolirujushchie properties. However they vlagoemki and thereof are insufficiently cold-resistant. Therefore the facades of external walls executed from these stones, plaster. Nizkomarochnye legkobetonnye and hollow concrete stones use only for erection of designs in a building in premises with normal heat vlazhnostnym a mode.
the laying from silicate stones and a brick more teploprovodna, has the big density, but at the same time is stronger and is durable, than a laying from legkobetonnyh stones. Therefore it widely apply to erection not only internal walls, but also external.
layings from a silicate, ceramic brick of moist pressing and a ceramic hollow brick are unsuitable for erection of designs which will be in crude gruntah, and also in damp and wet premises, for the device of furnaces, pipes, smoke and exhaust channels.
the Laying from ceramic hollow stones as most effective piece material is used mainly for erection of external walls of heated buildings. High teplotehnicheskie properties of this laying allow to reduce a thickness of external walls in a country midland on 1 / 2 a brick in comparison with a laying from a ceramic or silicate brick.
the Laying from large concrete, silicate or brick blocks, just as from piece materials, apply to erection of underground and elevated designs of buildings and constructions. Apply blocks from heavy concrete and a brick of plastic pressing: walls, the bases and other underground designs, and blocks from easy concrete, a silicate, hollow and poristo-hollow brick - basically external walls of buildings.
the Laying from natural stones and blocks of the correct form has high durability, firmness against aeration and freezing, small istiraemost, decorative effect.
From soft porous rocks in density 900... 2200kg/m 3 (a shell rock, porous tufov) in a kind pilenyh piece stones in weight to 40... 45кг spread external and internal walls of buildings. From porous rocks (limestones, tufov) produce also large stenovye blocks.
the Processed natural stones of firm breeds because of high cost and labour input of processing basically apply in the decorative purposes, for example to facing of socles or other parts of monumental public and industrial buildings and constructions, support of bridges, quays.
Butovaja and butobetonnaja layings possess considerable heat conductivity. In the presence of local stone materials these layings are recommended for the bases, and at erection of a laying with facing by a brick or other materials - for walls of cellars, retaining walls and other engineering constructions.
the Facilitated bricklaying is characterised by that in it for decrease in their expense and reduction of heat conductivity of walls replace a part of bricks legkobetonnymi with stones zasypkoj porous building materials or air layers.