The Stone laying absorbs and passes water, therefore, adjoining to a ground, it is endangered water saturation. Water can get through a laying into cellars and, extending above on a laying, to reach the first and even the second floor, causing dampness in premises. To protect the base, walls and other designs from a moisture, arrange a waterproofing, painting (a painting waterproofing) or pasting over (okleechnaja a waterproofing) their surfaces with waterproofing materials.
The Painting waterproofing carry out drawing on a surface of a laying of mastic from bitumens of different marks and napolnitelja (talc, izvest-pushonka, asbestos) or mastics on the basis of synthetic pitches. The okleechnaja waterproofing represents rolled materials (gidroizol, roofing material, isol, brizol), pasted bitumen or other mastics on isolated surfaces. As isolation use also asphalt or cement (with special cements) plaster.
a Fig. 106. A waterproofing of stone designs :
And - walls of a cellar from soil dampness, - the same, from ground waters, in - horizontal isolation of walls on slopes;
1 - horizontal from a layer tselementnogo a solution, 2 - vertical obmazochnaja from bitumen mastic, 3 - horizontal from rolled materials, 4 - horizontal okleechnaja isolation in a floor design, 5 - a cellar floor, 6 - a fold (jack), 7 - vertical okleechnaja isolation, 8 - a clamping wall from a brick, 9 - "чрьюъ" from fat clay, 10 - otmostka
Painting and okleechnye to isolation put on vertical (a vertical waterproofing) or on horizontal surfaces (fig. 106, arrange on walls of cellars or a surface of the bases from outside, adjoining a ground to level otmostki or sidewalk. At high level of ground waters (fig. 106,) in some cases vertical okleechnuju isolation protect from outside a ground the clay lock 9 and clamping walls 8 from a brick etc.
The Horizontal waterproofing serves for protection of walls of cellars and a building from a soil moisture which gets from outside soles of the bases. In bespodvalnyh buildings it do in a socle part on 200мм above level otmostki or sidewalk. If otmostka has a bias along a building wall, a waterproofing (fig. 106, do by ledges so that insulation layers blocked each other for the length equal to quadruple distance between them on height.
In buildings with cellars isolation establish in two levels: the first - at a cellar floor (fig. 106, the second - in a socle part above level otmostki or sidewalk. Depending on degree of water saturation of a ground, level of horizon of ground waters and other conditions a waterproofing course of horizontal isolation carry out in the form of a coupler from a cement mortal on portlandtsemente with condensing additives (aluminate of sodium and others) thickness 20... 25мм or two layers of roofing felt or the roofing material pasted by mastic.
In certain cases a waterproofing do in the form of an asphalt coupler by a layer 25... 30мм.