Preparation of not half-number bricks. For bandaging of seams of vertical restrictions, places of an adjunction and crossing of walls, columns and pristenkov not half-number bricks are required: chetvertki, halves and trehchetvertki (fig. 41. Masons prepare them directly on a workplace. For chetvertok, three chetvertok, and halves are used by bricks with the beaten off corners or other defects. Not half-number bricks turn the broken away party in a laying.
The Mason should be able establish precisely for what nepolnomernyj the brick is necessary in each case, and correctly to chop off it. If nepolnomernyj the brick is picked up incorrectly, bandaging of seams is broken and the solution expense increases, and it reduces durability of a laying.
a Fig. 43. Installation prichalki:
And - berthing skoba, - reinstallation skoby with a cord, in - protection of a cord by a beacon from sagging
For quality assurance of a laying after fastening and adjustment porjadovok on them spread beacons in a kind ubezhnoj shtraby (fig. 17 see, having them on corners and on borders of erected sites, and on them further conduct a laying. Prichalku at beacons strengthen berthing skoboj (fig. 43,) which sharp end insert into a laying seam, and by the stupid, longer end leaning on majachnyj a brick, adhere prichalku. A free part of a cord reel up on the handle skoby. Turn skoby in new position (on fig. 43, it is shown by a dotted line) receive a tension line prichalki for a following number. That prichalka did not sag between beacons, under a cord enclose an inventory beacon (fig. 43,) or a wooden brick (fig. 43,) which thickness corresponds to height of some a laying. Beacons place through 4... 5м with a ledge for a vertical plane of a wall on 3... 4мм. The Cord-prichalku can be adhered also for nails, (fig. 44).
After are established porjadovki, beacons are laid out and are tense prichalki, laying process on each workplace carry out in such sequence: display bricks on a wall, spread a solution under external verst and stack external verst. The further operations depend on a way of a laying, porjadnogo, step or mixed.
At a laying observe following general rules. Walls and piers carry out on uniform system of bandaging of seams - mnogorjadnoj or single-row (chain). For a laying of columns, narrow piers (width to 1м) in buildings, the walls intended under furnish, apply three-row system of bandaging of seams.
a Fig. 44. Strengthening of a cord-prichalki by a double loop for nails
The Laying of walls begin with tychkovogo a number. Them stack from the whole bricks, irrespective of system of bandaging of seams necessarily in bottom (first) and top (last) numbers erected by a design, at level of sawn-off shotguns of walls and columns, in acting numbers of a laying (eaves, belts etc.). At mnogorjadnoj to bandaging of seams tychkovye numbers are obligatory under basic parts of beams, runs, plates of overlappings, balconies and other designs. At single-row (chain) bandaging of seams it is supposed opiranie modular designs on lozhkovye numbers.
The Note of halves of a brick is supposed only in a laying zabutovochnyh numbers and malonagruzhennyh stone designs (sites of walls under windows, etc.).
Horizontal and cross-section vertical seams of a bricklaying of walls, and also all seams (horizontal, cross-section and longitudinal vertical) in crosspieces, piers and in columns should be filled by a solution.
The Laying of a socle part of walls carry out only from a ceramic corpulent brick. Application of a silicate brick is not supposed. Marks of a brick and a solution for a laying should correspond to the project.
a Fig. 45. Chain system of bandaging at a wall laying:
And - 1 1 / 2 a brick, - 2 bricks, in - 2 1 / 2 a brick
At a laying with homogeneous bandaging of the walls having on a thickness odd number of semibricks, for example 1 / 2 (fig. 45,), the first external verst of the first row, stack tychkovymi the bricks, the second - lozhkovymi bricks. At even number of semibricks, for example 2 (fig. 45, 6), the first row begin with packing tychkov on all width of a wall, in the second to a number verstovye bricks put spoons, zabutku - tychkami. In walls bolshej thickness (fig. 45,) in versts in the second to a number over tychkami put spoons, and over spoons - tychki. Zabutku in all numbers carry out tychkami.
Vertical restriction (an equal sawn-off shotgun of a wall on a vertical plane) receive, stacking in the wall beginning trehchetvertki. At wall erection in 1 / 2 a brick in its beginning put through one number of a half. For a bookmark of vertical restriction of a wall in 1 brick in lozhkovom to a number in the wall beginning two have in a longitudinal direction trehchetvertki, and in tychkovom to a number, as usually, the whole brick. On (fig. 45), and vertical restriction of a wall by thickness 1 '/2 a brick is represented. In tychkovom to a number in the wall beginning in corners have trehchetvertki in a cross-section direction, in lozhkovom - three trehchetvertki in a longitudinal direction of a wall. On (fig. 45, it is shown the laying of vertical restriction of a wall in 2 bricks, and on (fig. 45,) - a thickness 2 1 / 2 a brick.
a Fig. 46. Chain system of bandaging of a laying of corners and restrictions of walls and a quarter:
And - a thickness 1 brick, - 1 1 / 2 a brick, in - 2 bricks, g - 2 1 / 2 a brick
The Laying of corners of walls - the most responsible work, and it is carried out by highly skilled masons. Right angles spread under two schemes. The sequence of a laying under the first scheme is shown on (fig. 46, and. Under the second scheme the first tychkovyj a number of one of the walls making a right angle, begin from an external surface of the second wall and finish to the first row of the first wall. In the second to a number the laying goes in return sequence, i.e. A laying of the second row of the second degree begin from an external surface of the first wall trehchetvertkami. As a result lozhkovye numbers of one wall leave tychkami on an obverse surface of other wall. The wall, with admissions to an obverse surface of other wall, should come to an end trehchetvertkami, located is longitudinal: pass external lozhkovye numbers, adjoin external tychkovye. At such scheme of an apportion of a brick corners spread without chetvertok, but with a considerable quantity trehchetvertok.
a Fig. 47. Chain system of bandaging :
And - at an adjunction and crossing of walls by thickness 1 1 / 2 a brick, - at an adjunction in the thickness 2 bricks, in - at crossing of walls
the Adjunction of walls carry out so (fig. 47, and. In the first row a laying of an adjoining wall pass through the basic wall to its obverse surface and finish tychkami and trehchetvert-kami if to bandaging observance apply trehchetvertki and chetvertki (fig. 47 see,), or a passed laying finish one trehchetvertkami (fig. 47, see). In the second to a number spoons of the basic wall are adjoined by a number of an adjoining wall.
Crossing of walls (fig. 47, carry out, alternately passing numbers of a laying of one wall through another.
At mnogorjadnoj to bandaging, the first row spread through the basic wall, only go deep into it 1 / 2 a brick.
the Adjunction of walls carry out the same as at a laying of crossing of walls.
To external, at their non-simultaneous erection, it is possible to carry out the Adjunction of internal walls in the form of a vertical wall, mnogorjadnoj, single-row shtraboj (fig. 17 see). Put in these cases in external walls steel communications for laying strengthening (steel grids) have not less often than through 1,5м on laying height, and also in level of each overlapping. Length of longitudinal grids not less 1м from an adjunction corner.
Often external walls spread from a ceramic brick in the thickness 65мм or stones in the thickness 138мм, and internal - from utolshchennogo a brick in the thickness 88мм. Thus an adjunction of internal walls to external walls tie up through each three numbers of bricks in the thickness 88мм. Internal walls in the thickness 1 / 2 . A brick or 1 brick put after external main walls. For their joining to a main wall in it arrange a groove in which get a thin wall. If in the project there are no special instructions, the groove is done by depth 1 / 2 a brick. Other way of interface consists that do not leave a groove, and in seams of a main wall in the course of a laying put cores of armature for communication with adjoining walls.
the Laying of ledges of walls . Ledges of walls (pilaster) spread on single-row or mnogorjadnoj to bandaging system if width of a pilaster 4 bricks and are more, at width of a pilaster to Z 1 / 2 bricks - on three-row system of bandaging as a laying of columns. For bandaging with the basic wall depending on the size of a pilaster use not half-number or whole bricks, applying receptions of an apportion of the bricks, recommended for bandaging of adjunctions (crossings) of walls (fig. 49 see).
a Fig. 49. Mnogorjadnaja system of bandaging at crossing of walls by thickness 2 and 1 1 / 2 a brick with a wall in the thickness 2 bricks
the Laying of walls with niches . Walls with niches (50) for heating devices spread fig. with the same bandagings, as continuous sites. Niches form, interrupting in corresponding places, internal verst, and in corners of a niche for their communication with a wall stack not half-number and tychkovye bricks.
a Fig. 50. A laying of a wall with a niche at mnogorjadnoj to bandaging system
Gazohody and ventilating channels in walls from a brick, corpulent and hollow concrete stones spread from a ceramic corpulent brick with corresponding bandaging of a laying of the channel with a wall laying (fig. 51, and. The thickness of walls of channels and partitions between them should be not less 1 / 2 . A brick.
a Fig. 51. Ventjalitsionnye channels and gazohody:
And - in walls in 1 1 / 2 a brick, - in walls in 2 bricks, in - channel tap; g - cutting of a flue at wooden overlapping;
1 - an inclined site of the channel; 2 - a place of connection of the furnace to the channel; 3 - a bag for soot, 4 - a cement mortal, 5 - the felt impregnated with clay, 6 - a brick
Channels do vertical. Taps of channels (fig. 51, on distance no more than 1 m at an angle not less 60° are supposed; to horizon. The channel section on the tap site, measured perpendicularly channel axes, should be same, as section of the vertical channel. A laying of inclined sites carry out from otesannyh bricks, other sites - from whole.
Smoke and ventilating channels spread on the same solutions, as internal walls of a building. In low buildings chimneys spread on glinopeschanom a solution which structure define depending on fat content of clay.
In all places where wooden parts approach close to smoke channels (chimneys), arrange cutting (fig. 51, from fireproof materials (a brick, asbestos) and increase a thickness of walls of the channel. Also undress places where designs are approached to the ventilating channels which are passing near to smoke channels. Distance from combustible designs of a building to "ф№ьр" i.e. An internal surface gazohoda, should be not less 380мм if designs are not protected from ignition, and not less 250мм if are protected.
Sites of walls with channels spread on a preliminary marking and, using a template-board with the cuts corresponding to an outline of channels in cross-section section of a wall. At a laying into channels insert inventory anchor buoys in the form of hollow boxes from boards or other material which fix the form of channels, protect them from a contamination, allow to fill laying seams better. Anchor buoy section to equally section of the channel, and height - to eight, ten numbers of a laying. Anchor buoys rearrange through 6... 7 numbers of a laying.
That on seams of a laying of the channel soot less settled, them in process of laying erection at shift of anchor buoys rub clean: moistening a surface of channels with water, pound shvabrovkoj flows of a solution and smooth down seams.
After the termination of a laying channels check, passing through them a sphere in diameter 80... 100мм to which the cord is adhered. A place of a contamination of the channel define on length of the cord lowered in it with a sphere.