The Laying in the way of freezing conduct in the open air from a frozen brick, stones or blocks of the correct form on the warmed-up solution having positive temperature at the moment of its packing in business, and then freezing. The essence of this way consists that the solution in the seams, frozen soon after its packing, hardens in the basic ambassador of thawing of a laying and partially during the period before freezing (for the account pljusovoj temperatures of a solution and the warmth allocated with cement at it tverdenii), and also at winter and spring thaw or artificial warming of a laying.
The Laying in thawing has the least durability. Therefore in the way of freezing, during one winter period, are supposed to erect stone designs in height no more 15м.
The Laying is authorised to be conducted only under equipment designs in which it is specified that they are made or reconsidered for a laying in this way. In the absence of such instructions to erect buildings in the way of freezing it is forbidden.
The Laying carry out in the open air, observing the same rules of manufacture of works, as for a summer laying. A laying on solutions without protivomoroznyh additives carry out with homogeneous bandaging. The minimum temperature of external air at which it is authorised to conduct a winter laying, bodies of a labour safety depending on environmental conditions of the given area of the country, for example in a midland of Russia, to - 30 °Р. establish
To a laying apply cement, cement-limy, or cement-clay solutions, and also solutions on ground not slaked to exhaust. Mobility of a solution: 9... 13см - for a laying from a usual brick and 7... 8см - for a laying from a brick with emptiness and from a natural stone. Marks of solutions appoint depending on temperature of air at the moment of Laying and weather forecast erection to the subsequent period. Thus structure of solutions select from a condition of maintenance of is minimum necessary durability and stability of a design in thawing and during the subsequent period of operation of a construction. The temperature of a solution during its packing should be not more low °Р.:
- 5 - at temperature of air to - 10°Р.;
- 10 - at air temperature-10...-20;
- 15 - from -20°Р. And more low.
At speed of a wind more about solution temperature raise, against the specified temperature, on 5°Р.
That the warmed-up solution delivered with rastvornogo of knot, has kept necessary temperature at the moment of packing, it should be used during 20... 25мин. It is impossible to apply the solution which has frozen or diluted with hot water as with water addition in a solution after its freezing the considerable quantity of the time filled with ice is formed to a laying; the solution in seams becomes more friable at thawing and does not type demanded durability. Frozen prior to the beginning shvatyvanija a solution it is necessary to return on rastvornyj knot for processing.
That the solution did not cool down during delivery, it transport in the warmed cars rastvorovozah, equipped with covers, with heating of a body exhaust gases from the engine. At work it is necessary to overload a solution as seldom as possible in the winter; it is necessary to aspire to that a solution from cars rastvorovozov unloaded directly in the warmed boxes to which it submit to masons on a workplace.
For the best obzhatija seams of a laying before freezing a solution spread on bed short beds - under two lozhkovyh a brick in versts, and under 6 bricks in zabutke. On the spread solution a brick stack as soon as possible, besides, aspire to erect faster a laying on height. The accelerated laying of a brick is necessary that the solution in underlaying numbers was condensed under loading from overlying numbers of a laying before freezing as it increases density and durability of a laying. With that end in view it is recommended to shorten allotments, being conformed to weather conditions.
The Thickness of seams should not exceed the sizes established for a summer laying. This requirement has exclusive value for preservation of stability of a laying at its thawing. It speaks that the laying which has been laid out in the winter, actually freezes within several hours, and obzhatie a neohardening solution occurs after full thawing of a laying. At an excessive thickness of seams the laying during thawing can give considerable to a deposit and even to collapse.
At breaks in work a laying cover with roofing felt or a brick dry, and before renewal of works clear of snow, naledi and a frozen solution. To a break in work all vertical seams of the top number of a laying should be filled by a solution, however cover with a solution the top number of a laying it is not supposed.
At laying erection regularly supervise vertical position of a laying as the walls having a deviation from a vertical, at thawing of a solution can be bent and collapse even more in the spring.
Walls and columns spread in regular intervals on all building or in limits between sedimentary seams, without supposing ruptures on height more than 1 / 2 a floor. After erection of walls and columns within a floor immediately stack modular elements of overlappings. Beams and the runs leaning against walls, connect with a laying of walls the metal anchors fixed in vertical longitudinal seams of a laying. The ends of adjacent runs lean against columns or a longitudinal wall, are fastened skrutkami, and at wooden runs - overlays.
At a laying of the bases the basis protect from promerzanija, both during manufacture of works, and upon termination of them, differently a basis procorf at thawing can lead to occurrence of cracks in a laying and to failure. It is impossible to arrange sandy pillows in the winter and to level the basis sandy layers in the thickness exceeding 100мм as at the big thickness of a sandy pillow non-uniform deposits, cracks in the bases and building walls are possible.
The Way of freezing authorises to erect the bases only from stones of the correct form and blocks.
In socles and basement walls izoljatsionnyj (roofing felt, roofing material) stack a material in the winter on the bed levelled by a solution in 2... 3 layers dry or on mastic (degtevoj, bitumen) depending on a class of a construction and soil conditions.
Crosspieces in walls do, as a rule, by national teams ferro-concrete. The device of ordinary crosspieces is supposed only at flights no more 1,5м, thus use a pendant timbering (for example, on kruzhalah) which remove not earlier than through 15дн. After full thawing of a laying.
Establishing window boxes on a course of a laying of piers in the winter, leave an interval not less 15мм (a sedimentary backlash) on a laying deposit between top of a box and a crosspiece bottom.
At the device of partitions consider possible to a laying deposit, and together with it and overlappings at thawing.
The Gleams left under a ceiling, should be twice more sizes deposits of the walls, expected within the given floor.
Partitions from plaster plates are recommended to be established only in premises, where temperature not more low 5°Р.; a solution thus prepare on the warmed-up water.