the Organization of works at erection of buildings


Manufacture of works at erection of buildings will organise according to the planned schedule (schedule) of manufacture, schedules of maintenance with materials, designs, mechanisms, personnel and technological cards on principal views of civil and erection works. Thus in a basis of the organisation and sequence of works put potochnost, a continuity and uniformity of the basic leading works as as a whole on a building, and by its parts (to stages, zahvatkam) with consecutive transition of working brigades and mechanisms on these sites.

Such organisation of works provides labour productivity increase, expands possibilities of combination of works and reduction of duration of building.

Process of erection of a building divide into a number of the cycles uniting related (interfaced) works. It allows to divide building into a number of independently finished stages, facilitates acquisition of building by personnel and maintenance with its materials, designs, mechanisms. All complex of the works which are carried out at erection of a building, divide into a zero cycle, elevated, finishing and special.

The Zero cycle, includes works below a zero mark: the device of drains and drainages, networks of highways and proezdov, to a fragment of foundation ditches, tranches, erection of the bases and walls of cellars; preparation under floors; the device of ladders and prijamkov in cellars and overlappings over cellars; the device kranovyh ways and installation of building cars.

The Land cycle are works on erection of a skeleton (box) of a building, walls, partitions. And also ladders, overlappings, roof designs.

The Finishing cycle covers plaster, facing, painting, obojnye and glass works, and also the device of coverings of floors.

The Special cycle, includes a number of works - the device of internal networks and installation of devices of water supply, the water drain, heating, ventilation, gasification, an electrical supply. And also low-current works (installation of telephones, radiofikatsija, chasofikatsija, the alarm system).

In each cycle establish such sequence of works at which provide the maximum combination of works in time with steady observance of correct technology, quality works and safety precautions requirements. So, at works of a zero cycle a foundation ditch break into sites on which consistently make all works. It has especially great value by manufacture of works in winter conditions when the separation from the device of the bases and return zasypki can lead promorazhivaniju a bottom of a foundation ditch or tranches.

Elevated works begin after the termination of a zero cycle. Before erection of an elevated part of buildings according to a building general layout equip platforms for storage of materials, details and designs, establish necessary mechanisms and inventory devices.

For acceptance and warehousing of each kind of materials and designs take away a place on a building site so that to workplaces it was necessary to spend for their transportation as less as possible work and time. Also choose places for reception and an overload from solution vehicles. Zones of warehousing of materials (by their kinds) separate from each other through passes the in width not less 1м.

In each zone and products stack materials, grouping in stacks in marks so that they were easy for finding in an operating time. Stacks of materials place with intervals from each other in the width 0,7м to provide the convenient approach and stropovku cargo (material), safety of work of workers. At a considerable quantity of the same products, it is recommended, in places of warehousing of materials, to establish indexes of series and marks of products.

For tower cranes lay railway lines. For caterpillar cranes or pneumowheel, level passes. Then establish cranes, lifts and other load-lifting cars. Before putting into operation them will examine and test according to operating rules.

The Basic works on each cycle according to a principle potochnosti will organise on zahvatkam. At building construction with brick walls and interfloor overlappings from precast concrete stone works carry out a method cross-section a floor-zahvatok. Its essence consists that in the plan divide a building on some zahvatok identical on labour input. On everyone zahvatke spread walls on floor height at first from interfloor overlappings, and then with inventory podmostej: in the first change put up walls, in the second - rearrange or increase podmosti. Upon termination of a laying on the first zahvatke masons pass to the second, and on the first assemblers establish panels of partitions and a plate of overlappings. Further work process repeats. The number zahvatok within a floor depends on the size of a building. Usually for zahvatku accept the part of a building equal to section of the house. Everyone cross-section zahvatku can be divided into two sites. Civil and erection works thus carry out simultaneously on both sites: pojarusno erect a laying of walls on each site or mount designs.

The Bricklaying of walls of each floor of a building carry out in three circles the links fixed to certain allotments that provides poosevuju specialisation and their responsibility for quality of work of executors.

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the Organization of manufacture of works at erection of buildings