the General requirements. the Laying of walls and other designs from a brick carry out according to manufacture and taking-over of works Rules, according to Building Norms and the Rules which observance provides demanded durability of erected designs and high quality of works.
In an operating time the mason watches that the brick and a solution specified in working drawings were applied, and horizontal and vertical seams were well (completely) are filled by a solution. It is impossible to suppose pustoshovki in vertical seams in a laying body. It weakens it, reduces durability. On a course of a laying the mason regularly checks bandaging and laying seams, vertical position, horizontal position and straightforwardness of surfaces and corners, installation of mortgage details and communications, quality of surfaces of a laying, drawing and rasshivku seams, selection of a brick for external verst of not plastered laying with equal edges and corners.
For quality check of a laying the mason uses tools available at its order and adaptations.
a Fig. 74. Check of correctness of a bricklaying:
And - a corner between an external and internal wall a square, in - walls a rule and level, g - a corner of a laying a plumb
Correctness of a bookmark of corners of a building (fig. 74, supervise a wooden square, horizontal position of numbers of a wall - a rule and level (fig. 74,) is not more rare than two times on each circle of a laying. For this purpose a rule put on a laying, put on it level and, having levelled it on horizon, define a deviation of a laying from a horizontal. If it does not exceed the established admission, a deviation eliminate at a laying of the subsequent numbers.
Vertical position of surfaces of walls (fig. 74, and corners (fig. 74,) layings check level and a plumb are not more rare than two times on each circle of a laying. The deviations which are not exceeding supposed, correct at the subsequent laying of a circle or a floor. Deviations of axes of designs eliminate in levels of interfloor overlappings.
Periodically check a thickness of seams. For this purpose measure five-six numbers of a laying and define an average thickness of a seam, for example, if at gauging of five numbers of a laying of a wall its height has appeared 400мм the average height of a laying of the same kind will be 400:5=80мм, and the average thickness of a seam minus a thickness of a brick will make 80 - 65=15мм. The average thickness of horizontal seams of a bricklaying within floor height should make 12мм, vertical - 10мм. Thus the thickness of separate vertical seams should be not less than 8 and no more 15мм, horizontal not less than 10 and no more 15мм. The thickening of seams against provided by rules can be supposed only in the cases stipulated by the project; thus the sizes utolshchennyh seams should be specified in working drawings.
Correctness of completeness of filling of seams (vertical and horizontal) a solution check, taking out in different places separate bricks of the laid out number (is not more rare than three times on floor height).
During a laying it is necessary to check also on conformity to the project:
- places opiranija runs, beams, crosspieces, plates of overlappings on walls, columns and pilasters and them zadelki in a laying;
- fastening in a laying of modular eaves, balconies and other console designs;
- the armature laid in stone designs;
- devices of deformation seams, smoke and ventilating channels of fastening of thin walls and partitions to main walls, to a building skeleton.
After the termination of a laying of each floor it is necessary to spend tool check of horizontal position and marks of top of a laying irrespective of intermediate checks of horizontal position of its numbers.
When deviations exceed supposed, a question on continuation of works solve together with the design organisation. If the design organisation allows not to alter a laying, she specifies concrete ways of correction of defects.
In dry, hot and windy weather a brick before packing plentifully moisten with water, and a ceramic brick immerse in water that there was the best coupling of a solution and normal it tverdenie. It is especially important for a laying in seismic countries and carried out on solutions with cement knitting structures.
At breaks in work the top number of a laying should remain not covered solution. Continuation of a laying after a break is necessary for beginning with poliva water of a surface before the laid out laying. Such requirement is caused by that the dry brick after packing on a solution quickly sucks away from it water and the water maintenance in a solution it appears insufficient for normal hydration of cement. As a result the part of knitting substance in a solution without interaction with water remains not used, and durability of a solution and its coupling with a brick sharply decrease. Necessity of humidifying of a brick before packing in a design and humidifying degree is defined by building laboratory.
a Fig. 75. Permissible deviations at a bricklaying (dashed lines):
And - walls, - columns
Manufacture and taking-over of works Rules establish permissible deviations in sizes and position of stone designs (fig. 75) concerning marking axes and the design sizes.