The Bricklaying carry out from ceramic corpulent, hollow and silicate bricks. The brick has the form of a rectangular parallelepiped with direct edges and corners, with equal sides. The sizes of a brick in millimetres: unary - 250X120Х65, utolshchennogo - 250X120X88; ceramic hollow plastic pressing can be also 288 X 138X63.
The bandaging System is an order of packing of bricks (stones) rather each other. It should correspond to rules razrezki layings.
At a laying distinguish bandaging of vertical, longitudinal and cross-section seams. Longitudinal seams tie up that the laying was not stratified along a wall on more thin walls and that pressure in a laying from loading were in regular intervals distributed on width of a wall. For example, if a wall in the thickness l 1 / 2 a brick to lay out only spoons, it will consist of three untied among themselves walls in the thickness 1 / 2 a brick and loading between them will be non-uniformly distributed. Bandaging of cross-section seams is necessary for longitudinal communication between the bricks, loading providing distribution to the next sites of a laying, and for solidity of walls at non-uniform deposits, temperature deformations, etc. Cross-section seams tie up lozhkovymi and tychkovymi numbers, longitudinal - tychkovymi.
The Basic systems of bandaging of a bricklaying of the walls, widely applied in our country, - single-row (chain) and mnogorjadnaja, and also three-row.
a Fig. 20. Systems of bandaging of a bricklaying :
And - homogeneous (chain), - mnogorjadnaja;
1 - tychkovye numbers, 2 - lozhkovye numbers, 3 - displacement of vertical seams on a brick quarter, 4 - the same, on half of brick
At single-row (chain) bandaging (fig. 20, lozhkovye and tychkovye numbers in a laying alternate. Cross-section seams in adjacent numbers, are shifted rather each other - on 1 / 4 a brick, and longitudinal - on 1 / 2 a brick. All vertical seams of the bottom number are blocked by bricks of an overlying number.
Chain bandaging is applied at a laying of walls. If put up walls at which an obverse layer spread from facing or other effective brick, chain bandaging apply only at corresponding instructions in the project.
At mnogorjadnoj to bandaging (fig. 20, 6) the laying consists of walls in the thickness 1 / 2 . A brick (120мм), combined from lozhkov. Depending on the sizes of a brick the limiting height lozhkovoj layings between tychkovymi numbers for various kinds of a laying is established: from an unary brick in the thickness 65мм - one tychkovyj a number on six numbers of a laying; from concrete and natural stones of the correct form at height of a number to 200мм - one tychkovyj a number on three numbers of a laying; from utolshchennogo a brick in the thickness 88мм - one tychkovyj a number on four numbers of a laying.
At mnogorjadnoj to bandaging of a laying from an unary brick, longitudinal vertical seams through everyone five lozhkovyh numbers are blocked tychkovymi by numbers. Thus tychkovye numbers, can settle down both in separate, and in other numbers in alternation with lozhkovymi bricks. Cross-section vertical seams in four lozhkovyh numbers are blocked by spoons of each adjacent number on '/2 a brick, and seams of the fifth lozhkovogo a number - tychkovymi sixth row bricks 1 / 2 . A brick. Such laying name pjatirjadnoj. Sometimes for strengthening of bandaging of a laying tychkovye numbers stack through three lozhkovyh. Such laying name three-row.
At mnogorjadnoj to bandaging system the third rule razrezki layings is not completely observed. However absence of bandaging of longitudinal seams on height of five numbers of a laying practically does not reduce its durability, at the same time owing to the big thermal resistance of these seams located on a way of a thermal stream, improves teplotehnicheskie laying indicators.
The Laying of external and internal versts - the most labour-consuming operation. Labour productivity at brick packing in a design depends on a parity of quantity of a brick in versts and zabutke, i.e. From system of bandaging of a laying. At mnogorjadnoj to bandaging of walls, in versts stack in 1,3 times of less bricks, than at chain (single-row) bandaging of walls. It considerably facilitates work of the mason, as packing lozhkovyh bricks on a cord proizvoditelnee, than tychkovyh: accuracy of bandaging is easier provided, the quantity of cross-section seams of the laying demanding the big accuracy in work is reduced.
At chain bandaging it is required bolshee quantity of three-quarter bricks for end faces of walls, corners and columns. For example, on 1м heights of a corner of a wall in the thickness 2 bricks at a chain laying are required 14 trehchetvertok and 42 chetvertki or (at other scheme of an apportion) 52 trehchetvertki, at mnogorjadnoj - four trehchetvertki and 12 chetvertok. The cabin on trehchetvertki and other not half-number bricks, except work expenses leads to considerable loss of a brick.
Mnogorjadnaja bandaging system is recommended as the basic at erection of walls, including the walls revetted with obverse or other brick. The mnogorjadnuju system of bandaging is not supposed to be applied to a laying of columns as because of incomplete bandaging of seams they will be insufficiently strong. Columns and piers in width to 1м should be spread on three-row system of bandaging. A laying from ceramic stones with cross-section shchelevidnymi emptiness carry out single-row bandaging.