Each working operation in the course of a laying carry out certain tools.
The Basic tools: kelma, rastvornaja a shovel, rasshivka, a hammer-kirochka.
Kelma (fig. 21, - the steel shovel ground from both parties with the wooden handle - is intended for solution levelling on a laying, fillings with a solution of vertical seams and podrezki in seams of a superfluous solution.
Rastvornaja a shovel (fig. 21, 6) serves for giving and rasstilanija a solution on a wall, its hashing in a box.
Rasshivkami (fig. 21, seams process, i.e. Give them the certain form. The profile of cross-section section and the sizes rasshivok select according to the set form and thickness of seams.
the Hammer-kirochku (fig. 21, the mason uses at cabin of the whole brick on not half-number bricks and at tyoske them.
Shabrovka (fig. 21, it is intended for clearing of ventilating and smoke channels of the solution which has acted from seams, and also for fuller filling with a solution and smoothing down of seams in channels. On the steel handle shvabrovki below, the rubber plate in the size 140Х1X 140X10 (12) mm which is working body is fixed between flanges.
a Fig. 21. Tools for a bricklaying :
And - kelma, - rastvornaja a shovel, in - rasshivka for convex and concave seams, g - a hammer-kirochka, d - shvabrovka
Quality of a laying check control and measuring tools (fig. 22): a plumb, level, a rule, a square, a cord-prichalkoj.
The Plumbs consisting of the steel cone-shaped case, a twisted cord and an aluminium lath, (fig. 22, serve for check of vertical position of walls, piers, columns and laying corners, i.e. For proveshivanija layings. Plumbs in weight 200... 400г intend for check of correctness of a laying on circles and within floor height, 600... 1000г - for check of external corners of a building within height of several floors.
a Fig. 22. Control and measuring tools :
And - a plumb, - a roulette, in - collapsible metre, g - a square, d - building level, e - a dural rule
Building level apply to check of horizontal position and vertical position of a laying. Length of level 300, 500 or 700мм. The level case - from an aluminium alloy, on the case two glass tubes-ampoules bent on a curve of the big radius, filled with a nonfreezing liquid so are strengthened that in them there is a small air vial. At horizontal position of level a vial, rising upwards, stops in the middle between ampoule divisions. Vial displacement to the left or to the right from this position shows that the surface on which level is established, is not horizontal, and the more its inclination to horizon, the the vial from average position is more displaced. Thanks to that tubes are located in two directions, level it is possible to check not only horizontal, but also vertical planes.
The Rule represents otfugovannuju wooden rejku section 30X80мм, length 1,5... 2м or dural rejku a special profile in length 1,2м, intended for check of an obverse surface of a laying.
The Wooden square 500Х700 apply to check prjamougolnosti put corners. To stone works apply also metal squares from an angular profile.
The Roulette and collapsible metre - measuring tools with which mark axes and positions of designs, do control gaugings of a laying.
For maintenance of qualitative performance of a stone laying and increase of labour productivity of masons use small-sized manual adaptations.
Berthing skoby (fig. 23, for fastening of a berthing cord. Skoby the P-shaped form from prutkovogo a steel profile with the pointed ends or from a sheet steel (fig. 23,) fix in laying seams, and skoby from sheet metal put on a brick laid flatwise.
Intermediate beacons (fig. 23, - time linings which establish under a berthing cord that it did not sag, in the form of rectangular a box or a welded frame. The beacons established on a laying through 4... 6м, fix position of the tense cord-prichalki in a vertical and horizontal plane.
a Fig. 23. Adaptations for a laying :
And - skoba P-shaped, - skoba from a sheet steel, in - an intermediate beacon, g - a berthing cord in the case;
1 - a cord-prichalka, 2 - a welded box, 3 - the handle, 4 - cord rollers-clamps, 5 - an emphasis
Templates in the form of the wooden or metal rulers, intended for a marking window and doorways, a marking of smoke and ventilating channels and other parts of a laying.
the Cord - prichalka (fig. 23, - a twisted cord in the thickness 3мм which pull at a laying of versts between porjadovkami and beacons as a reference point for maintenance of straightforwardness and horizontal position of numbers of a laying, and also an identical thickness of horizontal seams. By means of a cord-prichalki, the mason defines, what position each stacked brick in verst should have.
Porjadovki - adaptations from corners, pipes or wooden reek. On porjadovkah divisions, horizontal numbers of a laying are put: 77мм - for an unary number, 100мм - for utolshchennogo a brick. porjadovki are intended for an attachment to them at a laying of a berthing cord and maintenance of vertical position and horizontal position of numbers of a laying. Metal porjadovki in the length to 1,8м, apply as angular, and wooden porjadovki, length to 3м (on a floor) as the intermediate.
Angular metal porjadovki (fig. 24) serve as a template (for laying numbers) which at correct installation (on a plumb) and rigid fastening provides vertical position of a laying. Fix porjadovki skobami (fig. 24, with a screw clip 3, or hooks 7 (fig. 24, inserted into apertures 8 for fastening of a berthing cord to porjadovke, and other end in laying seams. porjadovki establish prior to the beginning of a laying on building corners in places of an adjunction of walls, and on extended sites - through everyone 10... 12м.
At installation metal porjadovki at first in a vertical seam of a laying fix one skobu-clamp 2, and through 3... 4 numbers of a laying - another (fig. 24. Then between the established skobami-clamps and a laying insert porjadovku and adjusting screws press it to a laying and regulate vertical position. Correctness of installation check a plumb. After adjustment porjadovki pull a berthing cord. Remove porjadovku (fig. 24,) the rule 9 which have been put on on vorotok of a screw clip 3 of skoby-clamp. Rotation vorotka weaken skobu and take from a seam.
a Fig. 24. porjadovki :
And - installation and adjustment external angular metal porjadovki, - the same, in a corner, in - removal porjadovki, g - intermediate wooden porjadovka;
1 - adjusting screws, 2 - a fixing skoba-clamp, 3 - a screw clip, 4 - a cord-prichalka, 5 - mobile homutik prichalki, 6 - a plumb, 7 - hooks-holders, 8 - apertures for fastening of a berthing cord, 9 - a rule with an aperture, 10 - the holder porjadovki, 11 - a wedge, 12 - double skoba
Intermediate wooden porjadovki (fig. 24, are wooden rejki section 50 X 50 or 70 X 50мм, length to 3м on which divisions (a notch) through everyone 77 or 100мм according to a thickness of some a laying are put. At size 77 (100) the mm enters height of a brick and a thickness of a seam 12мм. Intermediate porjadovki apply to a marking of numbers of a laying, fixation of marks of a bottom and top window and doorways, crosspieces, runs, plates of overlappings and other elements of a laying.
To a surface of walls porjadovki (fig. 24, put so that the parties on which laying numbers are marked, have been turned in buildings (towards the mason). porjadovku krepjat in a laying P-shaped steel holders 10 in a kind skob with a cross-section lath. Do it as follows. In horizontal seams on a laying course through everyone 6... 8 numbers on height are entered by skoby-holders, having their one over another. Skoby should enter into a wall the ends and a cross-section lath a cut. and - A Having laid over the second holder pair of numbers of bricks, in skoby insert porjadovku and fix its wooden wedges 11. to porjadovkam krepjat a cord-prichalku double skoboj 12 (a cut - ) which is kept on rejke porjadovki by a tension prichalki and as a result friction between skoboj and porjadovkoj. porjadovku remove together with holders, without taking out wedges. For this purpose it cautiously shake in a plane, a perpendicular surface of a wall. Holders, Overcoming resistance of a solution, leave horizontal Seams of a laying, and porjadovku lift upwards together with them.