The work Organization is the system of actions providing rational use of personnel which includes corresponding arrangement of people in the course of manufacture, division into links, methods of performance of works, rationing and work stimulation, the organisation of workplaces, their service and necessary working conditions.
One of main principles of the organisation of work are division of building process into operations and specialisation of executors into their performance. Each worker use on the operations corresponding to its qualification - it is irrational to spend time and forces of the highly skilled worker there where with work workers of the lowest qualification can consult.
Not less important principle - potochnost manufactures. According to this principle work between the workers who are carrying out building process (for example, a bricklaying of walls), is divided so that the continuity and recurrence of operations on the taken away site of work were provided.
The Solving condition of efficiency of work of workers - rationality of methods of its realisation. It causes necessity to organise work on a scientific basis. The technical documentation containing the recommendations about the scientific organisation of work, names cards of labour processes.
Cards of labour processes on manufacture of stone works have sections:
- "¦¶¶хъ=штэюё=і applications ърЁ=№" where in cubic metre development of the mason is specified in 1 man-day;
- "Ђёяюыэш=хыш, the tool, adaptations, шэтхэ=рЁі" where the numerical and qualifying structure of a link of masons, and also the list and quantity of demanded tools, adaptations and stock is resulted;
- "Лёыютш and preparation яЁючхёёр" where the operations performed prior to the beginning of work (for example, check of horizontal position of numbers before the executed laying, giving on a workplace kladochnyh materials etc. are listed.);
- "Кх§эюыюуш and the organisation яЁючхёёют" in which enter: the schedule of labour process reflecting sequence, duration and expenses of work for each working operation which is carried out by masons; the description of operations; schemes of the organisation of a workplace with instructions of the locations of masons, placings of pallets with a brick, boxes with a solution etc.;
- "¤Ёшхь№ =Ёѕфр" illustrated by the drawings opening to the technician of performance of working-class movements and supplemented with the short explaining text.
The Cards of labour processes generalising the best practices, promote increase of labour productivity of masons.
Building processes are carried out by links. Duties in a link are distributed so that uniform loading of workers and rhythmical performance of all operations were provided. The quantitative and qualifying structure of a link of masons depends on character and amount of works.
With a view of improvement of a management by manufacture links unite in specialised or complex brigades.
Specialized brigades consist of workers of one trade (speciality) and carry out, as a rule, simple building processes.
Complex brigades consist of links of the various trades participating in creation of certain production. For example, the brigade on a stone laying shares on links of masons, carpenters, assemblers, scaffold workers. In a complex brigade on number of working leading trades appoint also quantity of working other trades, recognising that they should provide possibility with worker of leading trades to reach the maximum labour productivity, and also that all brigade was completely and it is in regular intervals busy.
Complex brigades of end production carry out more a wide range of works, and not so stone laying, and entirely a building prepared for internal painting and decorating can be their production.
Work in complex brigades or the complex brigades of end production translated on cost accounting will most effectively be organised. Such brigades achieve the best results, when they perform works on the terms of a team contract. Its essence consists that the complex brigade operating on principles of cost accounting, assumes liability, i.e. Tenders on performance of a certain complex of works in the caused budget cost, and depending on the reached decrease in the cost price of these works receives in addition to standard wages material compensation.
The Administration of the construction organisation, in turn, undertakes to provide in due time building of object by the design-budget and organizational-technological documentation, building cars and mechanisms, materials, designs and the details necessary for performance of works under the contract, to carry out a technical management of building.
At the contract conclusion on performance of works, a contract brigade simultaneously with the given out uniform accord dress on performance of works on object are established planned (brigades depending on activity) expenses for manufacture of works charged to it: expenses for a material, designs and details, operation of building cars; an overhead charge. On termination of works define planned and actual expenses for the finished object (knot). The difference between planned and actual expenses of a self-supporting brigade for performance of the works charged to it makes the economy reached by a brigade. Taking into account it to a brigade pay wages and material encouragement according to Position about an accord payment in building. Besides, a self-supporting brigade award for the reached economy. The award between working brigades distribute to proportionally tariff rates and fulfilled time, and with the consent of all members of a brigade taking into account the real contribution of each worker to the general results - on a labour input ratio, in manufacture.
Links basically specialise In complex contract brigades on performance of a certain kind of works. At the same time in such brigades widely master adjacent trades that allows is more high-grade zagruzit.rabotajushchih and to provide timely performance of all works.
The Brigade performs works on zahvatkam a line method.
The Leader at a bricklaying is the link of masons, at erection of prefabrication buildings - a link of assemblers.
Works performed by everyone link are checked by workers of links of adjacent trades, i.e. Links which will perform the subsequent works. Work of masons is supervised by assemblers: they verify, for example, horizon of basic parts of walls before installation of overlappings.
Works of masons and assemblers are accepted by joiners and shtukatury which after erection of walls and partitions establish windows, doors, plaster slopes, walls. At work on a method of a team contract the system pooperatsionnogo quality assurance becomes the general rule of members of a brigade. Everyone knows that correction of the admitted errors will demand additional expenses of work and materials, will reduce the reached economy and the general development of a brigade. In a combination to the monitoring system from outside working other links, it induces to improvement of quality and faultless delivery of the executed works that, finally, promotes increase of efficiency of building manufacture.